Polar molecule, One side that is positively charged and one side that is negatively charged. Water Molecule, has slightly higher negative charge. One side of the water molecule has a weak positive charge while the other side has a weak negative charge. A covalent bond is a chemical bond that forms when atoms share electrons. The oxygen side attracts electrons to a greater degree than the hydrogen side, which draws electrons away from the hydrogen atoms. This leaves each side with a partial charge (positive on the hydrogen side, negative on the oxygen side). Like two bar magnets, whose oppositely charged ends are attracted to one another, two water molecules are attracted in a similar way. As a polar molecule, water does not interact well with any nonpolar molecule, whose sides carry equal or no electrical charges. Water molecules cannot easily form hydrogen bonds with nonpolar molecules. This means that nonpolar molecules do not dissolve well in polar solvents, such as water, acetic acid, and ethanol.
The chemical bond formed between two atoms by complete transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to other so as to attain their nearest inert gas configuration by each atom, that is donating or accepting electrons to complete their octet configuration. When the atom loose a electron, it is called ion. Two ions are formed, oppositely charged -ve ions ( anions) & +ve ion (cations). The bond formed by this kind of combination is known as an ionic bond.
Covalent bond forms when valence electrons are shared between atoms. Nonpolar covalent bonds form between two identical with identical affinities for electrons, in which the nuclei of the bonded atoms exert nearly equal force on the shared electrons. A polar covalent bond is a covalent bond in which the electron density is more localized on one end of the bond, with one end is slightly positive, and one end is slightly negative. Electrons are shared equally in a nonpolar molecule, such as fluorine (F2). Electrons are shared unequally in a polar molecule, such as hydrogen fluoride (HF).
Scale Up Calculation
It is recommended to scale up method parameters using simple calculations for flow rate and loading volume.
Scale up Flow Rate = Analytical Flow Rate x [( Internal Diameter of Prep Column )²/ ( Internal Diameter of Analytical Column )²]
Scale up Loading = Loading Qty on Analytical x [( Internal Diameter of Prep Column )²/ ( Internal Diameter of Analytical Column )²] x [ Bed Length of Prep Column / Length of Analytical Column ]